Pulp Horn Amputation

Today’s case is a 11 year old patient with a big caries on the second maxillary molar referred to me to save the tooth. My duty as endodontist is not only providing root canal treatments but also preserving teeth from them too.

In this particularly case I performed a pulp horn amputation.


These are the steps taken:

– Rubber dam isolation.

– Microscope magnification.

– Manual removal of the soft dentin with excavator.

– Pulp horn amputation.

– Disinfected and rinsed with NaOCl from “outside” to achieve haemostasis.

– Dried with sterile cotton pellets.

– Bioceramic capping.

– Direct glass ionomer as temporally filling on top.

Dentistry today is about the small details.

Dr. Pablo Salmeron.

At Dr. Roze & Associates.

Re root canal treatment upper second molar

This is a re-treatment of an upper second molar #27 through an Emax crown . These kinds of treatments are difficult. However, sometimes they can be easy, and other times they can be impossible. The re-treatment of the tooth depends a lot on the work carried out by the previous dentist therefore, I endeavour to be honest with my patients, as sometimes I am not able to fix everything.

In the following case I had to re-treat a tooth filled with Thermafil. Although Thermafil is a great system and works very well in the hands of some endodontist, it doesn’t work for me. I feel that I can’t control the obturation in 3D and the plastic carrier can be easily exposed without guttapercha around.

For that reason, I feel much more comfortable and secure using vertical condensation with System B, it requires maybe more training under the microscope but is worth it and works really well for me.


– Tooth #27

– Microscope

– K-Files #10 #15 #20

– Wave One Gold

– Bioceramics + System B

Dr. Pablo Salmeron.

Never give up, because when you think it’s all over, is the moment where everything starts.” — Jim Morrison.

At Dr. Roze & Associates. Dubai. Abu Dhabi. UAE.

The 9th Palestinian International Dental Conference

title conferenceLast month I gave a lecture at The 9th Palestinian International Dental Conference. I have to start this post thanking particularly to the BAIRD Academy and the Palestine Dentistry Society for inviting me to the congress and make me feel like I was at home. I want to thank especially Dr. Hassan MaghairehDr. Raed Junaidy, Dr. Anan Amro, and Dr. Ahmad Abd El-Ghani for all their help and for showing me the most beautiful areas of Jordan, Palestine and Jerusalem.

The topic I covered was about Magnification, Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs), Ergonomics and 4 Handed Workflow. For me, all those 4 concepts, are intimately related.

posterOur manual capacity is limited by our own eyes. It’s because of that why we can not be more precise, simple as that. To be able to see fine details, we have to bring the object closer to the eye. This is why dentists have to bend down over the patient’s mouth, and this is why dentist have back problems.

The use of magnification is the way to overcome our eye’s limitations. This will also make us work in a neutral and healthy position resulting in long lasting professional career.

4 handed work flow is the master piece which completes the ergonomic puzzle. Here you have a couple of videos where I show basic movements which you can start using till you develope your own technique. The first video has been recorded in 30 minutes with an assistant with no previous experience at all; and the second one with a new assistant after one month training. Watch in HD.

“Make it a point to do something every day that you don’t want to do. This is the golden rule for acquiring the habit of doing your duty without pain.”  Mark Twain.

Dr. Pablo Salmerón.

Vertical Root Fracture

In this post I’m going to talk about vertical fractures regarding a case I had a few months ago, the one on the right picture. This maxillary first premolar was ready to get a root canal therapy but presented a mesiodistally vertical coronal fracture that continued to the furca which divided the tooth in two roots, bucal and palatal. The tooth had an old restoration on the distal side that was not in occlusion and that probably let the fracture appear on the mesial area where you can see the line fracture. The tooth was also sensitive to vertical percussion and had some mobility, however, there wasn’t significant evidence or bone loss on the radiographic tests.

Most of the vertical fractures are due to excessive concentration of loading over some areas of the root canal. Studies have shown that the curvature of the root canal seems more important than the external morphology of the root, in terms of stress concentration, the remaining thin dentin increases the magnitude but not the direction of the stress generated by forces. In fact as thinner the mesiodistal dentin walls are, the concentration of forces on the lingual and bucal walls increase the risk of fracture in this direction contrary to what one might think at first, more dentin thickness the harder it is to break in that direction, well… it is not like that.

There are three factors that determine the distribution and direction of forces, a) the anatomy of the root canal, b) the anatomy of the root, c) the thickness of the dentin. The canal anatomy seems to be the most important factor determining the distribution of forces.

The vertical fractures most often occur in premolars, both maxillary and mandibular, followed by fractures on the mesial root of mandibular molars and central incisors.

One of the biggest problems we find in cases of vertical fractures is that they aren’t easy to diagnose. Most symptoms usually appear years after the fracture. We may well find, sensitivity to percussion and vertical palpation, presence of fistula, or a large and isolated periodontal pocket that doesn’t correspond to a general periodontitis. Radiologically we can observe a radiolucent area with horizontal bone loss along the affected root.

fractura verticalDiagnosis vertical fractures is a challenge for the dentist because the symptoms are similar to a failed root canal treatment and usually radiographic test doesn’t show evidence of a fracture clearly. Another problem in endodontically treated teeth is often the filling materials doesn’t allow us to see the fracture line on the radiograph as they’re in the same plane. Patients may experience anxiety to thinking that the endodontic treatment is not working when, in fact, the problem is a fracture prior or post to the root canal treatment.

Dr. Pablo Salmerón.